Microsoft SQL Server Server (MS SQL) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by Microsoft. It was created initially to run on Windows Servers but later ported to Linux. The MS SQL Server 2019 is build on the previous releases to grow SQL Server as a platform that gives you choices of development languages, data types, on-premises or cloud environments, and operating systems.

Microsoft SQL Server

In this short article we will perform an installation of Microsoft SQL Server (MS SQL) 2019 on Amazon Linux 2. This release of MS SQL Server introduces Big Data Clusters for SQL Server and provides additional capability and improvements for the database engine, Analysis Services, Machine Learning Services, Master Data Services among many others.

Step 1: Update Amazon Linux Server

Before we begin the installation process let us update the operating system

sudo yum -y update

Since there could be kernel updates it is recommended to reboot the system after a successful upgrade:

sudo reboot

Step 2: Add Microsoft YUM Repositories

Run the commands below to add required repository to the system.

sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/mssql-server.repo

Confirm the repository is now available:

$ sudo yum repolist
Loaded plugins: langpacks, priorities, update-motd
amzn2-core                                                                                                                                 | 3.7 kB  00:00:00
packages-microsoft-com-mssql-server-2019                                                                                                   | 3.0 kB  00:00:00
packages-microsoft-com-mssql-server-2019/primary_db                                                                                        | 209 kB  00:00:00
repo id                                                                       repo name                                                                     status
amzn2-core/2/x86_64                                                           Amazon Linux 2 core repository                                                24,398
amzn2extra-docker/2/x86_64                                                    Amazon Extras repo for docker                                                     41
packages-microsoft-com-mssql-server-2019                                      packages-microsoft-com-mssql-server-2019                                         122
repolist: 24,561

Step 3: Install MS SQL Server 2019 on Amazon Linux 2

The SQL Server installation on Amazon Linux and any other Linux distribution has the the following system requirements:

Memory2 GB
File SystemXFS or EXT4 (other file systems, such as BTRFS, are unsupported)
Disk space6 GB
Processor speed2 GHz
Processor cores2 cores
Processor typex64-compatible only

Ensure your system meets the following requirements for the installation to be successful.

Then run the following commands to install SQL Server:

sudo yum install mssql-server

Accept installation prompt to proceed.

Dependencies Resolved

 Package                             Arch                    Version                              Repository                                                 Size
 mssql-server                        x86_64                  15.0.4123.1-5                        packages-microsoft-com-mssql-server-2019                  232 M
Installing for dependencies:
 cyrus-sasl                          x86_64                  2.1.26-23.amzn2                      amzn2-core                                                 87 k
 cyrus-sasl-gssapi                   x86_64                  2.1.26-23.amzn2                      amzn2-core                                                 42 k
 gdb                                 x86_64                  8.0.1-30.amzn2.0.3                   amzn2-core                                                3.2 M
 python3                             x86_64                  3.7.9-1.amzn2.0.2                    amzn2-core                                                 72 k
 python3-libs                        x86_64                  3.7.9-1.amzn2.0.2                    amzn2-core                                                9.2 M
 python3-pip                         noarch                  9.0.3-1.amzn2.0.2                    amzn2-core                                                1.9 M
 python3-setuptools                  noarch                  38.4.0-3.amzn2.0.6                   amzn2-core                                                617 k

Transaction Summary
Install  1 Package (+7 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 247 M
Installed size: 1.1 G
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y

Also import GPG key

Retrieving key from
Importing GPG key 0xBE1229CF:
 Userid     : "Microsoft (Release signing) <[email protected]>"
 Fingerprint: bc52 8686 b50d 79e3 39d3 721c eb3e 94ad be12 29cf
 From       :
Is this ok [y/N]: y

Step 4: Configure MS SQL Server 2019 on Amazon Linux 2

After the installation you’ll need to run mssql-conf setup and follow the prompts to set the SA password and choose your edition.

sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf setup

Chosse MS SQL Server edition:

Choose an edition of SQL Server:
  1) Evaluation (free, no production use rights, 180-day limit)
  2) Developer (free, no production use rights)
  3) Express (free)
  4) Web (PAID)
  5) Standard (PAID)
  6) Enterprise (PAID) - CPU Core utilization restricted to 20 physical/40 hyperthreaded
  7) Enterprise Core (PAID) - CPU Core utilization up to Operating System Maximum
  8) I bought a license through a retail sales channel and have a product key to enter.

Details about editions can be found at

Use of PAID editions of this software requires separate licensing through a
Microsoft Volume Licensing program.
By choosing a PAID edition, you are verifying that you have the appropriate
number of licenses in place to install and run this software.

Enter your edition(1-8): 2

Then accept the license agreement

The license terms for this product can be found in
/usr/share/doc/mssql-server or downloaded from:

The privacy statement can be viewed at:

Do you accept the license terms? [Yes/No]: yes

Next set SQL Server system administrator password:

Enter the SQL Server system administrator password:
Confirm the SQL Server system administrator password:

Setup should be completed in a short while.

Configuring SQL Server...

ForceFlush is enabled for this instance.
ForceFlush feature is enabled for log durability.
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/ to /usr/lib/systemd/system/mssql-server.service.
Setup has completed successfully. SQL Server is now starting.

Verify that the service is running after the configurations are done.

$ systemctl status mssql-server
● mssql-server.service - Microsoft SQL Server Database Engine
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mssql-server.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2021-04-29 12:41:29 UTC; 1min 26s ago
 Main PID: 3445 (sqlservr)
   CGroup: /system.slice/mssql-server.service
           ├─3445 /opt/mssql/bin/sqlservr
           └─3468 /opt/mssql/bin/sqlservr

Step 5: Install the MS SQL Server Client tools on Amazon Linux 2

You need SQL Server command-line tools to connect to the database server and perform operations such as database creation.

Start by downloading the Microsoft Red Hat repository configuration file:

sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/msprod.repo

Run the following commands to install mssql-tools with the unixODBC developer package.

sudo yum -y install mssql-tools unixODBC-devel

For convenience, add /opt/mssql-tools/bin/ to your PATH environment variable. This enables you to run the tools without specifying the full path

echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bash_profile
echo 'export PATH="$PATH:/opt/mssql-tools/bin"' >> ~/.bashrc
source ~/.bashrc

You should now be able to connect locally to the Database Server:

sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P '<YourPassword>'

You can omit the password on the command line to be prompted to enter it.

$ sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA

Type QUIT to exit SQL Server terminal session.


After a successful installation of MS SQL Server 2019 on Amazon Linux 2, review the best practices for configuring Linux and SQL Server to improve performance for production scenarios. Read through the Performance best practices and configuration guidelines for SQL Server on Linux guide.

Books to read:

Expert T-SQL Window Functions in SQL Server 2019: The Hidden Secret to Fast Analytic and Reporting Queries

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SQL Server 2019 Revealed: Including Big Data Clusters and Machine Learning

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Microsoft SQL Server 2019: A Beginner's Guide, Seventh Edition

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Windows Server 2019 Automation with PowerShell Cookbook: Powerful ways to automate and manage Windows administrative tasks, 3rd Edition

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